Download 2007-2008 Basic and Clinical Science Course Section 11: Lens by American Academy of Ophthalmology, Steven I. Rosenfeld, MD PDF

By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Steven I. Rosenfeld, MD

Experiences the anatomy, body structure, embryology, and pathology of the lens. additionally offers an summary of lens and cataract surgical procedure, and describes the issues of surgical procedure.

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Extra resources for 2007-2008 Basic and Clinical Science Course Section 11: Lens and Cataract

Example text

Arc of contact The point of effective, or physiologic, insertion is the tange ntial point where th e muscle first contacts the globe. The action of the eye muscle may be considered a vector of force that acts at this tangential point to rotate the eye. The length of muscle actually in contact with the globe constitutes the arc of co ntact. The traditional co ncepts of arc of contact and muscle plane, based on straight-line 2-dimensional models of orbital anatom y, do not take into account the recently discovered effect ive muscle pulleys and their effect on linearity of muscle paths.

CHAPTER 3 Motor Physiology Basic Princi les and Terms Axes of Fick, Center of Rotation, and listing's Plane A movement of the eye aroun d a theoretical center of rotation is described with specific terminology. Two helpful concepts are the axes of Fick and Listing's plane (Fig 3- 1). The axes of Fick are deSignated as x, y, and z. The x-axis is a transverse axis passing through the center of the eye at the equator; vertical ro tations of the eye occur about this axis. The y-axis is a sagitta l axis passing through the pupil; involun tary torsional rotations occur about this ax_is.

The RIO needs less than normal innervation to elevate the right eye because Its antagonist. the RSO, IS paretic. Consequently. its yoke. the LSR. will be apparently underacting, and pseudoptosis with pseudoparesls of the LSR will be present. When gaze is toward the field of action of the paretic muscle (5), maximal innervation is required to move the right eye down during adduction. and thus the LlR will be overacting. B. With left sound eye fixating, no vertical difference appears in th e right fie ld of gaze (1 and 41.

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