Download 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: by Kevin M. Miller, MD PDF

By Kevin M. Miller, MD

Offers present purposes of optical phenomena, together with the optical concerns regarding foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs, and refractive surgical procedure and the layout, becoming, and problems of touch lenses. additionally coated are optics of the human eye, the layout and use of ophthalmic tools, simple options of geometrical optics and the present method of low imaginative and prescient administration and imaginative and prescient rehabilitation.

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Additional info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)

Sample text

Illustration developed by Kevin M. Miller, Mo, and rendered by C. H. ) Law of Rectilinear Propagation The law of rectilinear propagation states that light in a single medium travels along straight-line paths called rays (Fig 2-19). The light ray is the most fundamental construct in geometrical optics. Of particular note, rays traversing an aperture continue in straight lines in geometrical optics. A bundle of light rays traveling close to each other in the same direction is known as a pencil of light.

Lasers are usually named for the active medium. The medium can be a gas (argon, krypton, carbon dioxide, argon-fluoride excimer, or helium with neon), a liquid (dye), a solid (an active element supported by a crystal, such as neodymium supported by yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAG] and erbium supported by yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride [Er:YLF)), or a semiconductor (diode). The second requirement for a laser is a means for imparting energy to the active medium so that a majority of the atoms are in an energy state higher than the ground state.

Angle of reflection, sur- (Illustration developed by Edmond H. 44 . Note that this is not the angle between the incident ray and the optical interface. The reflected ray and the surface normal form the angle of reflection Br. The law of reflection states that the reflected ray lies in the same plane as the incident ray and the surface normal (ie, the reflected ray lies in the plane of incidence) and that Bj = Br (Fig 2-23). The amount of light reflected from a surface depends on Bjand the plane of polarization of the light.

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