By American Academy of Ophthalmology, John Bryan Holds MD
Info the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a realistic method of the overview and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional alterations. Updates present info on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and aggravating stipulations of the orbit and accent buildings. Covers key features of orbital, eyelid and facial surgery.
Upon final touch of part 7, readers can be capable to:
Describe the conventional anatomy and serve as of orbital and periocular tissues
Choose acceptable exam ideas and protocols for diagnosing problems of the orbit, eyelids, and lacrimal system
Describe sensible and beauty symptoms within the surgical administration of eyelid and periorbital stipulations
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System PDF
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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System
Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections tend to present as a fluctuant abscess with surrounding cellulitis. The pain associated with the lesion is often out of proportion to its appearance. CA-MRSA is often susceptible to a range of antibiotics (including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, or clindamycin), whereas hospital-associated MRSA is sensitive only to vancomycin and linezolid. However, both types of MRSA may result in acute morbidity and long-term disability. MRSA has also been associated with necrotizing fasciitis, orbital cellulitis, endogenous endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and cavernous sinus thrombosis.
The sympathetic innervation to the orbit provides for pupillary dilation, vasoconstriction, smooth muscle function of the eyelids and orbit, and hidrosis. The nerve fibers follow the arterial supply to the pupil, eyelids, and orbit and travel anteriorly in association with the long ciliary nerves. Interruption of this innervation results in the familiar signs of Horner syndrome: ptosis of the upper eyelid, elevation of the lower eyelid, miosis, anhidrosis, and vasodilation. Lacrimal Gland The lacrimal gland is composed of a larger orbital lobe and a smaller palpebral lobe.
This chapter presents an overview of the major causes of specific and nonspecific orbital inflammation, with the goal of providing a working knowledge of the most common of these disorders. Gordon LK. Orbital inflammatory disease: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Eye (Lond). 2006;20( 10): 1196-1206. Table 4-1 Differential Diagnosis of Major Orbital Inflammations Infectious (identify the anatomic location as preseptal or orbital cellulitis) Bacterial (identify the source) Direct inoculation (trauma, surgery) Spread from adjacent tissue (sinusitis, dacryocystitis) Spread from distant focus (bacteremia, pneumonia) Opportunistic (necrotizing fasciitis, tuberculosis) Fungal Zygomycosis Aspergillosis Parasitic Echinococcosis Cysticercosis Autoimmune Thyroid eye disease (TED) Vasculitic Giant cell arteritis Wegener granulomatosis Polyarteritis nodosa Vasculitis associated with connective tissue disorders Granulomatous Sarcoidosis Nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI) (diagnosis of exclusion) 39 • 40 • Orbit, Eyel ids, and ~acrimal System Infectious Inflammation • Cellulitis The most common cause of cellulitis is bacterial infection.