By Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal
Over the final twenty years there were a good number of technical advances and alterations within the box of academic and mental trying out. in line with Anne Anastasi, the last decade of the 1980's has been a interval of surprising advances in ,psychological checking out. Technological growth, theoretical sophistication, and extending seasoned fessional accountability are all glaring within the fast-moving occasions during this box (A. Anastasi, mental checking out, 6th version. ny: Macmillan, 1988). at the psychometric entrance, advances in issues similar to merchandise reaction concept, criterion-referenced dimension, generalizability theory,· analy sis of covariance constructions, and validity generalization are reshaping the ways in which skill and success assessments are built and evaluated, and that try out ratings are interpreted. yet \Jsychometric advances, as huge and critical as they've been, are just a fragment of the main adjustments within the box of checking out. this present day, for instance, the pc is considerably chang ing the ways that assessments are developed, administered, and scored. desktops are getting used to manage exams "adaptively." that's, the series of questions an examinee is run relies on his or her functionality on past administered goods within the attempt. exams are "adapted" to the power degrees of the examinees who're being assessed. One result's shorter assessments with very little loss in size precision. pcs also are getting used to shop or financial institution attempt goods. Later, goods of curiosity could be chosen, and the pc is used to print copies of the test.
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Extra resources for Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory and Applications
K. (1979). Effects of test length and advancement score on several criterion-referenced test reliability and validity indices (Laboratory of Psychometric and Evaluative Research Report No. 86). Amherst, MA: School of Education, University of Massachusetts. R. (1983). The meaning of content validity. Applied Psychological Measurement 7:3-13. Glaser, R. (1963). Instructional technology and the measurement of learning outcomes: Some questions. American Psychologist 18:519-521. V. (1978). Standards and criteria.
Technical Adequacy of Test Items. The technical adequacy of test items is usually established at the same time as test items are reviewed for the appropriateness of their content. Measurement specialists can be asked to review the test items to identify flaws in items such as grammatical cues, awkwardly worded item stems, and nonrandom distribution of correct answers across the answer positions. Sample item technical review forms are given by Hambleton (1984a; 1990). Representativeness of the Test Items.
Experimental methods include determining the sensitivity of test scores and mastery classifications to the effects of instruction on test content; and 5. Multitraitlmultimethod studies address what it is that a test actually measures. Accumulating validation evidence can be a never-ending process. The amount of time and energy that should be expended on the validation of test scores and mastery classifications should be directly related to the importance of the test use. 28 METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCES In the brief section that follows, several validity investigations that are unique to criterion-referenced tests will be described.