By Lukas Thommen
In historic Greece and Rome an ambiguous courting built among guy and nature, and this decisively made up our minds the style during which they taken care of the surroundings. at the one hand, nature was once conceived as an area characterised and inhabited by means of divine powers, which deserved acceptable admire. at the different, a rationalist view emerged, in line with which people have been to subdue nature utilizing their applied sciences and to eliminate its assets. This ebook systematically describes the ways that the Greeks and Romans intervened within the setting and therefore lines the historical past of the stress among the exploitation of assets and the security of nature, from early Greece to the interval of past due antiquity. whilst it analyses the excellent establishing up of the Mediterranean and the northern frontier areas, either for cost and for financial task. The book's point and procedure make it hugely available to scholars and non-specialists.
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Extra resources for An Environmental History of Ancient Greece and Rome
1974) Prices vs. quantities, Review ofEconomics Studies XLI(4), 4 77--491. 2. Costs of Uniform and Differentiated Charges on a Polluting Input: An Application to Nitrogen Fertilisers in Sweden RUNAR BRANNLUND and lNG-MARIE OREN 1. , Kneese, 1964; Fisher and Peterson, 1976). , Tietenberg, 1979; Siebert, 1992). The higher the impact of the emission from a certain source on the recipient, the higher is the charge level. However, in the real world it is usually not possible to adjust the charge rates according to the spatial allocation of emission sources.
Under these assumptions, an efficient allocation of tradeable quotas will require that poor countries be given quotas in excess of their current emission, and rich countries get quotas less than their current emissions, cf. Chichilnisky and Heal (1994), Chichilnisky et al. (1993). The previous remarks imply that the allocation of quotas may have to favor developing countries proportionately more than industrial countries if we seek market efficiency. This holds true for any total target level of emissions.
The other is responding to violations in a way which ensures that it is always in the interests of participants to comply. The first of these aspects is by far the more straightforward of the two. Arrangements for monitoring compliance have been mentioned several times. In particular, we have made the point that to monitor overall compliance it is not necessary to monitor every possible industrial source of C02. , the major distributors of gas, oil and coal. These are limited in number and fairly prominent.