By Gerd Nonneman
Within the post-9/11 weather, the position of center jap and North African (MENA) states in Europe’s nearby protection setting and overseas politics has develop into greater than ever a spotlight for cognizance, yet continues to be ill-understood. This ebook presents a framework for the research of heart japanese international guidelines usually, and for figuring out those states’ family members with Europe particularly. The booklet fills a spot within the literature on Euro-Middle jap relatives by way of adopting a south-to-north standpoint, utilizing the instruments of international coverage research to envision the determinants of the overseas guidelines of the MENA states themselves: basically hence can one desire to reach at a real figuring out of what underlies those states’ evolving coverage orientations and behavior in the direction of Europe. the amount starts off via laying out a conceptual framework for research, and interpreting the household, nearby, and overseas environments that situation MENA overseas regulations. genuine coverage output is then systematically investigated via a variety of state case experiences starting from the Maghreb and the Mashreq to the Gulf and Turkey. Europe is handled all through either as a aim of these international guidelines, and as a part of the surroundings that shapes them. the results of a two-year undertaking subsidized by means of the ecu college Institute’s Mediterranean Programme, the ebook is helping bridge the divide among center East services and the self-discipline of diplomacy. The systematic comparative research of MENA states’ international coverage with distinct connection with Europe throws new gentle on questions on ‘Third international’ overseas coverage.
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Additional info for Analysing Middle Eastern Foreign Policies: The Relationship With Europe
Not surprisingly, EU responses combined a concern for maintaining trans-Atlantic cooperation and coordination, with clear, if diplomatic, indications of concern. 42 Meanwhile, it remained to be seen whether the renewed emphasis on political reform in the MENA states, and the stated intention to make policies in this regard more coherent, would be given tangible and effective form. Unsurprisingly, the context of the ‘war on terror’ brought both a recognition of the desirability of such reform and a reluctance to pressure friendly regimes too hard, while there was also a strong awareness of the complexity of democratisation dynamics.
It can also affect foreign policy in other ways. For instance, even within the group of oil producers different needs may lead to different policies. Iran has relatively lower oil reserves and a very large population, and will therefore be relatively less interested in the very-long-term future of the oil market. Moreover, it faces higher immediate needs than Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the UAE, where the opposite applies. Iraq falls in between these two ends of the spectrum, although its reconstruction and eventual rearmament needs (or desires) nudged it towards a higher-price stance (a new, Western-friendly regime might slant somewhat in the other direction, but this is not a foregone conclusion).
The Gulf The dynamics of regional relations in the Gulf since the 1970s have been driven mainly by four factors:18 1. Ideological clashes. 2. Differential attitudes to outside powers. THE THREE ENVIRONMENTS OF MENA FOREIGN POLICY 3. 4. 25 National security interests/raison d’e´tat – in economic, military security, and territorial terms. The interests of rulers/ruling families (including dynastic rivalries). For the GCC states in particular, the two key driving concerns in their regional foreign policy have been external and domestic security.