By Chi-Chao Chan
This ebook describes experimental animal versions that mimic universal human ocular ailments: herpetic keratitis, cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, Graves’ sickness, and intraocular tumors. In conjunction, those versions mirror the variety and software of instruments used to check human disorder. international specialist clinicians speak about each one version in accordance with their scientific event and the textual content is supported through quite a few images and diagrams. In describing the main pertinent animal types of ophthalmic illnesses, this e-book can be of curiosity to ophthalmologists, imaginative and prescient researchers, fellows, citizens and clinical students.
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Extra info for Animal Models of Ophthalmic Diseases
Most recent work using the UVBinduced rat model has focused on determining potential anti-cataract/protective agents. For example, caffeine has been shown to have in vitro and in vivo protective effects against UVB irradiation in rats (Kronschlager et al. 2013; Varma et al. 2008). The lens contains a high concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), which acts to eliminate oxidants and protect against exogenous and endogenous ROS. Caffeine is thought to protect against UVR-induced cataract by scavenging ROS (Giblin 2000; Lou 2003; Spector et al.
In other cases, however, animals are euthanized, lenses removed, and irradiated in vitro. The mouse has been used in many UV-induced cataract models in order to elucidate the genetic and biochemical factors at play. For example, transgenic and knockout mice have been used to study the specific role of proteins in protecting the lenses against UV-induced cataracts (Lassen et al. 2007) (Meyer et al. 2009). As an example, UVB-induced cataract formation was found to be accelerated in mice with single and double knockout of the genes encoding the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, establishing the importance of these two enzymes in the mechanism of cataract formation (Lassen et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55(8):5445–5455. 14-14845 Martinez-Wittinghan FJ, Sellitto C, Li L, Gong X, Brink PR, Mathias RT, White TW (2003) Dominant cataracts result from incongruous mixing of wild-type lens connexins. J Cell Biol 161(5):969–978. 200303068 Maruoka S, Matsuura T, Kawasaki K, Okamoto M, Yoshiaki H, Kodama M, Sugiyama M, Annaka M (2006) Biocompatibility of polyvinylalcohol gel as a vitreous substitute. Curr Eye Res 31(7–8):599–606. 1080/02713680600813854 Mathias RT, White TW, Gong X (2010) Lens gap junctions in growth, differentiation, and homeostasis.