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By Richard Muir (auth.)

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Jackson senses that the origins of landscape indicate a new and detached mode of seeing, something more than a shift in artistic and literary taste. (1984 p. 34) Summarising Meinig (1979 pp. 288-9), he listed the key features of Jackson's landscape idea: landscape is anchored in human life, not something to look at but to live in, and to live in socially. Landscape is a unity of people and environment which opposes in its reality the false dichotomy of man and nature which Jackson regards as a Victorian aberration.

His methodology was the result of the solving of pragmatic problems. ' He rejected an evolutionary approach to culture, one which would analyse its inner workings, and concentrated instead upon culture's material manifestations in the landscape, like settlement forms or field patterns. He did not regard human beings as the direct object of geographical enquiry, and gave priority to the physical expressions of human activity in the landscape. As a student he was exposed to the extreme environmental determinism propounded by Ellen Semple, but as he matured he rejected the notion that human actions were determined by the nature of the physical environment and the use of preconceived theoretical frameworks in general.

2). In 1986 he confessed that: I find the more extreme - and more vocal - forms of American environmentalism to be irresponsible and uncivilised. The best solution I see for this super-aestheticism is a more general recognition of landscape history: less emphasis on the old romantic theme of conflict between man and nature and more emphasis on the political, economic and technological forces which continue to shape our landscapes. I find it encouraging that several American universities now offer courses on the history of our cultural landscape in which such mundane topics as roads and settlement patterns and sports facilities and gardens are discussed, and their evolution touched upon.

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